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RINDKOPAS DALU [Kopš 2012.gada... ...Rigas Austrumos] AIZSTAT AR: "2012.gada 14.-17.junija Rigu apmekleja Sena un Sakotneja Memfisas-Misraima Rita Starptautiska Liemeistara Vietnieks un Francijas Lielmeistars, un Rigas pilsetas Austrumos tika nodibinats Cienijamais Trissturis "Maat" Nr.127. [ATSAUCE a] 2014.gada 8.novembri pilnvarota Starptautiskas Suverenas Svetnicas Delegata vadiba tika dibinata Cienijama Loža "Maat" Nr.127 Rigas pilsetas Austrumos. [ATSAUCE b][ATSAUCE c]"

RINDKOPAS DALU [2015.gada... ...Aurora Balticum] PARVIETOT ... KAUT KUR :-)

Kopš 2012. gada Latvijā darbojas arī ezotēriskās Ēģiptes rita brīvmūrniecības Senais un Sākotnējais Memfisas-Micraima Rits. 2014. gadā tika dibināta loža Maat Nr. 127 Rīgas Austrumos.[10]

2015. gadā tika iesvētīta Rīgas loža Aurora Balticum.[11][1]

2018. gada decembrī Latvijā uzsāk darbu Senā un Sākotnējā Memfisas-Misraima Rita Cienījamais Trīsstūris "Akhet" Nr.132 Rīgas Austrumos.[12][13]

Reliģijas brīvība

Reliģijas brīvība ir cilvēka pamattiesība, kā arī tiesiski politisks termins, kas pamazām kļuvis par konstitucionālu principu, kas atbalsta indivīda un kādas kopienas brīvību paust reliģisku ticību vai mainīt reliģiju.[2][3][4][5]

Raksturojums[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

Termins reliģijas brīvība vēsturiski saistīta ar iecietību of different theological systems of belief, while freedom of worship has been defined as freedom of individual action. Piemēram,

Cilvēka un pilsoņa tiesību deklarācija (1789) guarantees freedom of religion.

Kīrs Lielais established the Achaemenid Empire ca. 550 BC, and initiated a general policy of permitting religious freedom throughout the empire.[6][7]

The Dalai Lama, the Tibetan leader in exile, said that religious tolerance of 'Aryabhoomi,' a reference to India found in the Mahabharata, has been in existence in this country from thousands of years. Religious tolerance is inherent in Indian tradition," the Dalai Lama said.[8]

Freedom of religion in contemporary India is a fundamental right guaranteed under Article 25 of the nation's constitution.[9]

Europe[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

Religious intolerance[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

Nineteenth century allegorical statue on the Congress Column in Belgium depicting religious freedom

Most Roman Catholic kingdoms kept a tight rein on religious expression throughout the Middle Ages. Jews were alternately tolerated and persecuted, the most notable examples of the latter being the expulsion of all Jews from Spain in 1492. Some of those who remained and converted were tried as heretics in the Inquisition for allegedly practicing Judaism in secret. Despite the persecution of Jews, they were the most tolerated non-Catholic faith in Europe.

Early laws and legal guarantees for religious freedom[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

Habsburg rule in Transylvania[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

Also the Unitarians (despite of being one of the "accepted religions") started to be put under an ever-growing pressure, which culminated after the Habsburg conquest of Transylvania (1691),[10]

Netherlands[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

In the Union of Utrecht (20 January 1579), personal freedom of religion was declared in the struggle between the Northern Netherlands and Spain. The Union of Utrecht was an important step in the establishment of the Dutch Republic (from 1581 to 1795). Under Calvinist leadership, the Netherlands became the most tolerant country in Europe. It granted asylum to persecuted religious minorities, such as the Huguenots, the Dissenters, and the Jews who had been expelled from Spain and Portugal.[11] The establishment of a Jewish community in the Netherlands and New Amsterdam (present-day New York) during the Dutch Republic is an example of religious freedom. When New Amsterdam surrendered to the English in 1664, freedom of religion was guaranteed in the Articles of Capitulation.

United States[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

Most of the early colonies were generally not tolerant of dissident forms of worship, with Maryland being one of the exceptions. For example, Roger Williams found it necessary to found a new colony in Rhode Island to escape persecution in the theocratically dominated colony of Massachusetts. The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony were the most active of the New England persecutors of Quakers, and the persecuting spirit was shared by Plymouth Colony and the colonies along the Connecticut river.[12] In 1660, one of the most notable victims of the religious intolerance was English Quaker Mary Dyer, who was hanged in Boston, Massachusetts for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers from the colony.[12] As one of the four executed Quakers known as the Boston martyrs, the hanging of Dyer on the Boston gallows marked the beginning of the end of the Puritan theocracy and New England independence from English rule, and in 1661 King Charles II explicitly forbade Massachusetts from executing anyone for professing Quakerism.[13] Anti-Catholic sentiment appeared in New England with the first Pilgrim and Puritan settlers.[14]

International[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

On 25 November 1981, the United Nations General Assembly passed the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief. This declaration recognizes freedom of religion as a fundamental human right in accordance with several other instruments of international law.[15]

However, the most substantial binding legal instruments that guarantee the right to freedom of religion that was passed by the international community is the Convention on the Rights of the Child which states in its Article 14 : "States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. – States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child. – Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others."[16]

Contemporary debates[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

Veidne:Status of religious freedom

Theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

In 1993, the UN's human rights committee declared that article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights "protects theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief."[17][18][19]

Liberal secular[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

The French philosopher Voltaire noted in his book on English society, Letters on the English, that freedom of religion in a diverse society was deeply important to maintaining peace in that country.

If one religion only were allowed in England, the Government would very possibly become arbitrary; if there were but two, the people would cut one another’s throats; but as there are such a multitude, they all live happy and in peace.[20]

Adam Smith, in his book The Wealth of Nations (using an argument first put forward by his friend and contemporary David Hume), states that in the long run it is in the best interests of society as a whole and the civil magistrate (government) in particular to allow people to freely choose their own religion, as it helps prevent civil unrest and reduces intolerance.

Christianity[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

Part of the Oscar Straus Memorial in Washington, D.C. honoring the right to worship.

According to the Catholic Church in the Vatican II document on religious freedom, Dignitatis Humanae, "the human person has a right to religious freedom", which is described as "immunity from coercion in civil society".[21] This principle of religious freedom "leaves untouched traditional Catholic doctrine on the moral duty of men and societies toward the true religion."[21] In addition, this right "is to be recognized in the constitutional law whereby society is governed and thus it is to become a civil right."[21]

Prior to this, Pope Pius IX had written a document called the Syllabus of Errors. The Syllabus was made up of phrases and paraphrases from earlier papal documents, along with index references to them, and presented as a list of "condemned propositions". It does not explain why each particular proposition is wrong, but it cites earlier documents to which the reader can refer for the Pope's reasons for saying each proposition is false.[22]

Islam[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

Veidne:Further information Conversion to Islam is simple, but Muslims are forbidden to convert from Islam to another religion. Certain Muslim-majority countries are known for their restrictions on religious freedom, highly favoring Muslim citizens over non-Muslim citizens. Other countriesVeidne:Who having the same restrictive laws tend to be more liberal when imposing them. Even other Muslim-majority countries are secular and thus do not regulate religious belief.[23]Veidne:Failed verification

In addition, Veidne:Cite quran, which is believed to be God's final revelation to Muhammad, states that Muslims are to fear God and not those who reject Islam, and Veidne:Cite quran states that one is accountable only for one's own actions. Therefore, it postulates that in Islam, in the matters of practising a religion, it does not relate to a worldly punishment, but rather these actions are accountable to God in the afterlife. Thus, this supports the argument against the execution of apostates in Islam.[24]

However, on the other hand, some Muslims support the practice of executing apostates who leave Islam, as in Bukhari:V4 B52 N260; "The Prophet said, 'If a Muslim discards his religion, kill him.Veidne:'"

In Iran, the constitution recognizes four religions whose status is formally protected: Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.[25] The constitution, however, also set the groundwork for the institutionalized persecution of Bahá'ís.[26][25] There is no freedom of conscience in Iran, as converting from Islam to any other religion is forbidden.

Modern concerns[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

In its 2011 annual report, the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom designated fourteen nations as "countries of particular concern". The commission chairman commented that these are nations whose conduct marks them as the world's worst religious freedom violators and human rights abusers. The fourteen nations designated were Burma, China, Egypt, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, North Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam. Other nations on the commission's watchlist include Afghanistan, Belarus, Cuba, India, Indonesia, Laos, Russia, Somalia, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Venezuela.[27]

Social hostilities and government restrictions[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

Freedom of religion by country (Pew Research Center study, 2009). Light yellow: low restriction; red: very high restriction on freedom of religion.

The Pew Research Center has performed studies on international religious freedom between 2009 and 2015, compiling global data from 16 governmental and non-governmental organizations–including the United Nations, the United States State Department, and Human Rights Watch–and representing over 99.5 percent of the world's population.[28][29] In 2009, nearly 70 percent of the world's population lived in countries classified as having heavy restrictions on freedom of religion.[28][29] This concerns restrictions on religion originating from government prohibitions on free speech and religious expression as well as social hostilities undertaken by private individuals, organisations and social groups. Social hostilities were classified by the level of communal violence and religion-related terrorism.

While most countries provided for the protection of religious freedom in their constitutions or laws, only a quarter of those countries were found to fully respect these legal rights in practice. In 75 countries governments limit the efforts of religious groups to proselytise and in 178 countries religious groups must register with the government. In 2013, Pew classified 30% of countries as having restrictions that tend to target religious minorities, and 61% of countries have social hostilities that tend to target religious minorities.[30][31]

Skatīt arī[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

References[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

  1. [1]
  2. «The Universal Declaration of Human Rights». The United Nations.
  3. [2] Par reliģijas brīvību un Latvijas Satversmi (latviski)
  4. Derek H. Davis. «The Evolution of Religious Liberty as a Universal Human Right». Arhivēts no oriģināla, laiks: 2008. gada 1. februāris. Skatīts: 2006. gada 5. decembris. (archived from the original Archived 1 February 2008 Wayback Machine vietnē. on 1 February 2008).
  5. Congressional Record #29734 – 19 November 2003. Google Books. Skatīts: 2011. gada 3. septembris.
  6. Cyrus Cylinder, livius.org.
  7. Richard A. Taylor, E. Ray Clendenen. Haggai, Malachi. B&H Publishing Group, 2004. gada 15. oktobris. 31–32. lpp. ISBN 978-0-8054-0121-9.
  8. «India's religious tolerance lauded». Deccan Herald. Skatīts: 2011. gada 3. septembris.
  9. «The Constitution of India» (PDF). Arhivēts no oriģināla, laiks: 2014. gada 9. septembris. Skatīts: 2011. gada 3. septembris. Ignorēts nezināms parametrs |df=
  10. History of Transylvania. Volume II. From 1606 to 1830. Hungarian Research Institute of Canada and A Research Ancillary of the University of Toronto. ISBN 0-88033-491-6. Skatīts: 2016. gada 20. novembris.
  11. Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, 11. Auflage (1956), Tübingen (Germany), pp. 396–97
  12. 12,0 12,1 Rogers, Horatio, 2009. Mary Dyer of Rhode Island: The Quaker Martyr That Was Hanged on Boston Common, 1 June 1660 pp. 1–2. BiblioBazaar, LLC.
  13. Puritans and Puritanism in Europe and America: a comprehensive encyclopedia. Google Books. Skatīts: 2011. gada 3. septembris.
  14. «America's dark and not-very-distant history of hating Catholics». The Guardian. 2016. gada 14. jūnijs.
  15. «A/RES/36/55. Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief». United Nations. 1981. gada 25. novembris. Skatīts: 2011. gada 3. septembris.
  16. Religious Rights – International Legal Instruments
  17. «CCPR General Comment 22: 30/07/93 on ICCPR Article 18». Minorityrights.org.
  18. International Federation for Human Rights. «Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran» (PDF). fdih.org, 2003. gada 1. augusts. Skatīts: 2009. gada 3. marts.
  19. Derek H. Davis. «The Evolution of Religious Liberty as a Universal Human Right». Arhivēts no oriģināla, laiks: 2011. gada 23. jūlijs. Skatīts: 2009. gada 3. marts.
  20. François Marie Arouet de. Voltaire. «Letter VI – On the Presbyterians. Letters on the English.». www.bartleby.com. The Harvard Classics, 1909–14 [1734]. Skatīts: 2017-05-25.
  21. 21,0 21,1 21,2 «Declaration on religious freedom – Dignitatis humanae». Vatican.va. Arhivēts no oriģināla, laiks: 2012. gada 11. februāris. Skatīts: 2011. gada 3. septembris. Ignorēts nezināms parametrs |df=
  22. Pope Pius IX. «The Syllabus». EWTN., Global Catholic Network
  23. Department of State United States. «2010 International Religious Freedom Report». International Religious Freedom Report. US Department of State. Skatīts: 2012. gada 15. februāris.
  24. Islam and Belief: At Home with Religious Freedom, Abdullah Saeed (2014): 8.
  25. 25,0 25,1 International Federation for Human Rights. «Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran» (PDF). fdih.org, 2003. gada 1. augusts. Skatīts: 2006. gada 20. oktobris.
  26. Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. «A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha'is of Iran» (PDF). Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, 2007. Arhivēts no oriģināla, laiks: 2007-11-27. Skatīts: 2007. gada 3. marts.
  27. «US commission names 14 worst violators of religious freedom». Christianity Today. 2011. gada 29. aprīlis. Skatīts: 2011. gada 11. jūlijs.
    ^ USCIRF Identifies World's Worst Religious Freedom Violators: Egypt Cited for First Time. United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. 28 April 2011. Atjaunināts: 11 July 2011.
    ^ Annual Report 2011 (Report). United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. May 2011. Arhivēts no oriģināla, laiks: 2011. gada 23. oktobris. Skatīts: 2011. gada 11. jūlijs. Ignorēts nezināms parametrs |df=
  28. 28,0 28,1 «Global Restrictions on Religion (Executive summary)». The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. December 2009. Skatīts: 2009. gada 29. decembris.
  29. 29,0 29,1 «Global Restrictions on Religion (Full report)». The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. December 2009. Skatīts: 2013. gada 12. septembris.
  30. Kļūda atsaucē: tika izmantota pew2013 nosauktā atsauce, taču tā netika definēta
  31. Rising Tide of Restrictions on Religion (Report). Pew Research Center. 2012. gada 20. septembris.

External links[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

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(franču: scepticisme no grieķu: σκεπτικός skeptikōs) http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ancient-alignments/ Napta Playa, Nabta Playa, "Nabta plaja"

apkallu apkalu [[Zosims no Panapoles

Galerija[labot šo sadaļu | labot pirmkodu]

{{Commonscat| Kas piedzimis no miesas, ir miesa, un, kas piedzimis no Gara, ir gars. Jn3:6 Katari


Desmostachya bipinnata Kusha grass (Poa cynosuroides) — a variety of grass considered sacred in India. The Buddha used this grass to make the meditation seat on which he attained enlightenment under the bodhi tree.

kāfirs persona, kas slēpj patiesību; neticīgie, ticības slēpēji; nepateicīgs; dsk. kāfirūn Panpsihisms Upuris (reliģija) http://blogi.lu.lv/tfstudenti/tag/upuris/ ne-patība (anatman)

Šantideva (Sanskrit: Śāntideva; Veidne:CJKV; Tibetan: ཞི་བ་ལྷ། Shyiwa Lha; Mongolian: Шантидэва гэгээн) bija 8. gadsimta Indijas budistu mūks and scholar at Nālandas and an adherent of the Madhyamaka philosophy of Nāgārdžuna. Bodisatva One of the central tenets of Buddhism, is the denial of a separate permanent "I", and is outlined in the "three marks of existence".

  1. Dukkha – Ciešanas vai neapmierinātība (Pāli: Dukkha)
  2. Anitya – Nepastāvība (Pāli: Anicca)
  3. Anatman – Not-Self (Pāli: Annatta)

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Χριστὸς ἀνέστη! Ἀληθῶς ἀνέστη! (Khristós Anésti! Alithós Anésti!)

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Eiropas nēģi, Upes nēģis (Lampetra fluviatilis)

Lidija Lasmane-Doroņina lielāko daļu savas dzīves ir bijusi disidente. Padomju laikos viņa tika arestēta 1946., 1970. un 1983. gadā. Ieslodzījumā Lidija ir pavadījusi 14 savas dzīves gadus, lai gan viņas vienīgais noziegums bija sapnis par brīvu Latviju. Lidijai šogad aprit 85 gadi, un kinodokumentālists Zigurds Vidiņš pabeidzis filmu “Gaismas ceļā”, kuras pirmizrāde notika 14.septembrī. Brokastu saruna ar Lidiju Lasmani-Doroņinu – dienu pēc filmas pirmizrādes par viņas dzīvi. Divu dažādu paaudžu pārstāves runā par to, vai laikmeti mēdz būt balti/melni. Domā atbildi, vai šobrīdējā brīvība nav pārāk pelēka un rosina pasivitāti – gan ikdienā, gan brīžos, kad jāizvēlas nākamā valdība. http://www.diena.lv/arhivs/latvijas-okupaciju-nevareju-pienemt-10005519 http://www.apollo.lv/zinas/lidija-lasmane-doronina-mans-vislielakais-nopelns/300455*

http://www.arkeotavira.com/Mapas/Iberia/Populi.htm 200. g pme

ANO Augstā komisāra bēgļu jautājumos (UNHCR) http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home

  • Uldis Cērps

Adja Junkers Adja Yunkers (1900–1983) was an American abstract painter and printmaker. He was born in Riga, Governorate of Livonia, Russian Empire in 1900.

"Tikai radošums ļauj apgūt kultūras artefaktus un integrēt tos savas kultūras laukā. Pašrealizācija notiek, izmantojot dažādas jaunrades formas." http://www.lu.lv/materiali/apgads/raksti/709.pdf http://lv.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lietot%C4%81js:IndulisMX/Smil%C5%A1u_kaste&oldid=2017560